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Diagnostic Blocks: Evaluating with Objective Data

Diagnostic Blocks: Evaluating with Objective Data

By Laurie Tyrrell-Schroeder Laurie Tyrrell-Schroeder, DVM | Updated on | Block AIDE, Data Interpretation, Diagnostic Blocks, LT Schroeder, OES Members Only

Diagnostic analgesia is an important part of the lameness evaluation, and, arguably, evaluating the effects of blocks is one of the greatest benefits of using objective measurement. Using objective measurement allows more accurate assessment of improvement, and prevents human bias from influencing interpretation.  The Lameness Locator software includes interpretive assistance algorithms (known as the part of the AIDE) that calculate percent improvement from a particular block, as well as a change in timing in forelimb lameness. Before explaining how the blocking algorithms work, let’s first review some important considerations and protocols one should follow as part of the...

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FAQ: Why does the Trial AIDE that evaluates for compensatory lameness patterns suggest a primary lameness in some trials but not others when the patterns of asymmetry are the same?

FAQ: Why does the Trial AIDE that evaluates for compensatory lameness patterns suggest a primary lameness in some trials but not others when the patterns of asymmetry are the same?

By Laurie Tyrrell-Schroeder Laurie Tyrrell-Schroeder, DVM | Updated on | Compensatory Lameness, Data Interpretation, Law of Sides, LT Schroeder, Multiple Limb Lameness

The multiple limb algorithms that are part of straight line AIDE statements and evaluate for known compensatory lameness are conservative in nature – meaning the algorithm leans toward not suggesting a primary limb unless there is a high degree of evidence. The first criteria for suggesting a primary limb is the presence of a known compensatory pattern. In Figure 1, a forelimb lameness with an opposite hind limb push off lameness is a known compensatory pattern for a primary forelimb lameness.  The suggestion of primary forelimb is offered in the first trial but not the second. Why is...

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Evaluating Bilateral Lameness with Inertial Sensors

Evaluating Bilateral Lameness with Inertial Sensors

By Kevin Keegan Kevin G. Keegan, DVM, MS, DACVS | Updated on | Bilateral Lameness, Data Interpretation, KG Keegan, OES Members Only

Any system or method that measures lameness as asymmetry will not be able to detect with high sensitivity or measure with high precision forelimb or hind limb lameness that is truly bilateral – especially if the lameness severity is distributed evenly between right and left limbs in every stride.  This is true for all methods – including body-mounted inertial sensors, line-of-site kinematic analysis (video), and the stationary force plate.  It is the method (measuring asymmetry), not the equipment, that produces these results. Here is an example. A horse with a hypothetical grade 3 lameness in the right limb...

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FAQ: What's a Q Score, and How Can I Use It?

FAQ: What's a Q Score, and How Can I Use It?

By Kevin Keegan Kevin G. Keegan, DVM, MS, DACVS | Updated on | Data Interpretation, FAQ, KG Keegan

"Quantification of Asymmetry": In Lameness Locator® 2017, Equinosis introduced a report metric called the Q Score. The Q score, or quantification of asymmetry, is a summary of the measurements that provides the limb, timing and amplitude of asymmetry, irrespective of whether the asymmetry is above or below defined thresholds.  There is one Q score for the forelimb evaluation and a combined Q score for the hind limb evaluation. The Q scores are different for fore and hind. Because the upward and downward movement of the head is related (due to its attachment to the torso via the neck, which acts...

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Understanding Q Thresholds

Understanding Q Thresholds

By Kevin Keegan Kevin G. Keegan, DVM, MS, DACVS | Updated on | Data Interpretation, KG Keegan, OES Members Only, Q Reference Range

  What is the purpose of a threshold?  A threshold signifies a difference, a change; in an area, in a state; between “inside” and “outside”, “normal” and “abnormal”, “high” or “low”, “good” or “bad”.  Unless there is an all-or-none cause of a simple physical phenomenon, like the threshold of a successful nerve stimulus, the proclamation of a threshold is, though not entirely arbitrary, necessarily inexact and dependent upon purpose or point of view.  The purpose of the thresholds in the Equinosis inertial sensor system is to demarcate the lowest level of vertical head and pelvic movement asymmetry that can...

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FAQ: Is There a Correlation Between Q Lameness Metrics and the AAEP Scale?

FAQ: Is There a Correlation Between Q Lameness Metrics and the AAEP Scale?

By Kevin Keegan Kevin G. Keegan, DVM, MS, DACVS | Updated on | AAEP Scale, Data Interpretation, KG Keegan, OES Members Only, Q Reference Range

I am frequently asked if there is a correlation between the lameness metrics of the Equinosis Q and the AAEP lameness grading scale.  A quick but somewhat misleading answer is, no!   The simple explanation is that the AAEP scale was not designed strictly to measure lameness severity, but also to assess lameness consistency.  Lameness metrics, on the other hand, characterize a single trial, not consistency over different trials (which is why we implore clinicians to obtain multiple trials to assess the stability/consistency of lameness). The AAEP scale’s primary purpose is recording and communicating clinical signs; recall that lameness...

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Quick Guide to Common Lunge Patterns

Quick Guide to Common Lunge Patterns

By Equinosis Logo Equinosis Staff | Updated on | Data Interpretation, Equinosis Staff, Lunging, OES Members Only

Common lunging asymmetries in normal horses: Hard Surfaces LUNGE LEFT LUNGE RIGHT Soft Surfaces LUNGE LEFT LUNGE RIGHT  

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Multiple Limb Lameness: Separating Secondary from Compensatory

Multiple Limb Lameness: Separating Secondary from Compensatory

By Kevin Keegan Kevin G. Keegan, DVM, MS, DACVS | Updated on | Compensatory Lameness, Data Interpretation, KG Keegan, Multiple Limb Lameness, OES Members Only, Secondary Lameness

“Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem”, or Ockham’s Razor, translated (roughly) as “more things should not be used than are necessary”, is attributed to a 14th century friar/philosopher, William of Ockham.  (In this context, “razor” means principle not a sharp cutting tool).  It is also known as “the principle of parsimony” which states a general scientific maxim offered by most great scientists before and after Ockham – including Ptolemy, Newton, and Einstein. What does this have to do with equine lameness? We can use this principle to help sort out multiple limb lameness using what we know about...

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FAQ: What Does It Mean When the Forelimb Plot Lines Fall on the Horizontal Axis?

FAQ: What Does It Mean When the Forelimb Plot Lines Fall on the Horizontal Axis?

By Equinosis Logo Equinosis Staff | Updated on | Data Interpretation, Equinosis Staff, Forelimb Stride Plot, Lunging Complications, OES Members Only

Let’s review some basics about the forelimb plot. The forelimb plot is an indication of not only the amplitude, but also of the distribution of head movement asymmetry that corresponds to whether the lameness is more decreased impact or more decreased pushoff of a limb. Each blue line represents the head movement asymmetry of a single stride included in the analysis and the thick red line represents the mean head movement asymmetry of all strides analyzed in the trial. The greater the asymmetry of head movement, the longer the lines. Each line is the vector sum of Diff Max and...

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Multiple Limb Lameness: A Look at the Reasons, Prevalence, and Distribution

Multiple Limb Lameness: A Look at the Reasons, Prevalence, and Distribution

By Kevin Keegan Kevin G. Keegan, DVM, MS, DACVS | Updated on | Compensatory Lameness, Data Interpretation, KG Keegan, Law of Sides, Multiple Limb Lameness, OES Members Only

Disregarding causes of lameness that are frequently bilateral - like navicular disease and distal tarsal osteoarthritis - there are 3 reasons why a horse will show lameness in more than 1 limb. In order of most to least common the reasons are: Compensatory Lameness - compensatory movement to unload a limb with pain creating asymmetric movement in the opposite end of the body. Secondary Lameness - compensatory movement to unload a limb with pain creating asymmetric movement in the opposite end of the body and overload of that second limb causing pain and or pathology in the second limb. Two primary lameness...

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